Aug 09 2016
Every night for 100 nights, Harmer's post-doctorate researcher Hagop Atamian went into a field of sunflowers planted in pots and rotated them so they were facing west in the morning.
This behavior of these ethereal flowers remained a mystery until now when the scientists have answered this question, central to their charm. The lovely yellow flowers turn east in the morning to face the rising sun and then moves across the sky during the day before heading westward by dusk.
They also found, by placing ink dots on the stems and filming them, that the east side of the plant would grow faster when facing the sun.
"It's the first example of a plant's clock modulating growth in a natural environment, and having real repercussions for the plant", said Stacey Harmer, professor of plant biology at UC Davis and senior author on the paper to be published August 5 in the journal Science. That's a result of different sides of the stem elongating depending on what time of day it is.
To see if the plants had their own biological clocks that were reset daily by the Sun, similar to our own, or were simply moving according to a pre-determined schedule, the team performed a series of experiments.
Young sunflowers follow the sun, their still-green buds arcing from east to west across the summer sky as dawn turns to noon turns to dusk.
Mercedes driver Hamilton increases lead with German GP win
Red Bull's Daniel Ricciardo clinched second, 6.9 seconds behind, with team-mate Max Verstappen completing the podium in third. The result means Hamilton has outscored Rosberg by 62 points since the pair collided at the Spanish Grand Prix in May.
Olympic Cycling: Annemiek van Vleuten suffers horror crash in women's road race
Asked if she was disappointed with the result, Armitstead said: "I feel quite proud of myself that I've held it together". This is sport and that's what it's about. "I'm so disappointed I couldn't give anything back".
Hammers to learn play-off opponents after Olympic Stadium debut win
He said: "Basically we have five games before the September global break and this squad is not big enough". West Ham manager Bilic added: "It was a good atmosphere, loud".
Following the sun appeared to boost sunflower growth, as those that were staked and rendered motionless reached smaller sizes than those with freedom of movement. More sunlight equals better growth, and the plants know it.
To find out more about why the flowers do this, the researchers used staked plants in pots to prevent them from following the sun.
This shows that following the sun throughout the day is advantageous, helping the plants both grow in size and ensure pollination.
A report published in NY Times revealed, "At dawn, whole fields of sunflowers stand at attention, all facing east, and begin their romance with the rising sun". Again, the circadian clock helps lead to the eastward orientation of sunflower heads when they stop tracking as they bloom, Blackman said.
When plants were moved into an indoor growth chamber with immobile overhead light, they continued to swing back and forth for a few days - the kind of behavior you would expect from a mechanism driven by an internal clock. Second, the internal clock is set to track the direction of light, leading the stem to grow unevenly, and causing the sunflower to sway east and west throughout the day. A portable heater was enough to restore a large numbers of pollinators back to the west-facing ones.
In another experiment, the researchers prevented outdoor potted sunflowers from tracking the sun.
"We show that these roles impact how much the plants grow and how well they attract pollinators, thus demonstrating that this regulation of light-responsive growth by the clock is likely an (evolutionary) adaptation", said co-author Benjamin Blackman, an assistant professor of plant and microbial biology at UC Berkeley.
Aug 09 2016
Trump to outline economic plan as he seeks to reverse slide
Trump's economic plan includes proposals he has offered before, including a call to reduce the corporate tax rate to 15% from 35%. He pledged to renegotiate the North American Free Trade Agreement and stop the passage of the Trans-Pacific Partnership.
Aug 09 2016
Lions TE Ebron carted off with leg injury
It's not just now, it's not just practice, it's not just training camp, it's all year round. The team will figure out ways to make things work without their starting tight end.
Aug 09 2016
On the air for August 8
The dominant United States of America men's basketball team takes on Venezuela at 5 p.m. after beating China Saturday 119-62. San Francisco at Miami, MLB, 6 p.m.; Atlanta at Milwaukee, FSWI, 6:20 p.m.; Houston at Minnesota, 7:10 p.m.
Aug 08 2016
11-year-old puts Mike Pence on the spot with Trump question
The national campaigning is just beginning, and he's been everywhere - but hasn't spent much time in Indiana. He has been fascinated by politics for a while and it just so happens he was born on Election Day in 2004.
Aug 07 2016
Moyes makes first Sunderland signing with Djilobodji
Chelsea have confirmed the sale of central defender Papy Djilobodji to fellow Premier League side Sunderland in an £8m deal. Djilobodji told www.safc.com: "I'm so happy to join Sunderland , I believe we are going to do something this year".
Aug 06 2016
Man accused of mass shooting at church attacked by jail inmate
The ambush on Roof took place at around 7:45 a.m. on Thursday as he was preparing for a shower inside the Charleston County jail. Roof is now awaiting multiple trials in connection with the deadly shooting at the Emanuel AME Church in June 2015.
Aug 06 2016
Apple will launch more than 100 new emojis this autumn
Microsoft displayed a toy gun in lieu of the pistol emoji in a version of Windows 10 released previous year . Apple is following in Google's footsteps when it comes to releasing more emojis that promote gender equality.
Aug 06 2016
Bruce breaks loose: Homer leads Colon, Mets over Yankees 4-1
The Yankees also optioned RHP Chad Green to Scranton/Wilkes Barre and recalled RHP Johnny Barbato from the Triple-A club.... He then went on to have a phenomenal second half to the season and carried the Mets into the postseason.
Aug 06 2016
US Scientists Rush to Test Zika Vaccine
It is now spreading in 50 countries and territories, mainly in Latin America, the Caribbean and Florida. One of those three vaccines, called ZPIV, will be moving to clinical trials , Barouch said.
Aug 06 2016
RNC Chairman Called Donald Trump to Express Concerns About Campaign
The most powerful Republicans in Washington and New York's Trump Tower concede things will not change unless Trump wants them to. He's also continuing to invest his own money into his campaign, contributing another $2 million last month.
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