Mar 25 2017
Unfortunately, primary prevention is not possible for those cancers that are caused by random errors, which is why to avoid cancers altogether, "we need to focus more on early detection", Tomasetti said.
The research, published in the journal Science, indicates that nearly two-thirds of cancer-causing mutations are due to DNA copying errors.
Most mutations that cause cancer result from random DNA copying errors that occur when cells divide. For prostate cancer, the researchers calculated that 95 percent of the mutations driving the disease were random.
Vogelstein and Tomasetti said that their team's analyses call attention to a critical part of cancer etiology-presumably non-preventable random DNA copying errors, which are not often discussed.
"Occasionally they occur in a cancer driver gene".
The study also shines a spotlight on cancers that will occur no matter how flawless the environment, and may alleviate the guilt some patients face when they are diagnosed.
However many people still develop cancer for no obvious reason and even though they follow all the rules of healthy living - nonsmoker, healthy diet, healthy weight, little or no exposure to known carcinogens and and have no family history of the disease.
The scientists used a mathematical model that analysed genome sequencing and epidemiological data for 32 types of cancer.
Though we can't predict how random mutations will cause cancer, knowing what we don't know is a marked improvement from swimming in unknown unknowns.
What is Ag Day?
According to the ACA, each of this country's farmers feeds more than 144 people - up from 25 people just four decades ago. We honor our farmers and ranchers, who provide nearly everything we eat, use and wear on a daily basis.
NK engine test likely for satellite rocket, rather than ICBM: US expert
Japan, which was Tillerson's first stop before traveling to South Korea and China, hosts tens of thousands of US troops. Tillerson recently visited Japan, South Korea and China on trip that focused on North Korea's nuclear program.
Pakistan PM orders Afghan border crossings to reopen
Afghan Ambassador, Omar Zakhilwal, also urged the PM to re-open the border since it affected the interests and economies of both the countries.
Overall, they found, about two-thirds of the difference in cancer rates from one kind of tissue to another is due to differences in the rates of cell division in those tissues.
"Despite the role of the random replication component in producing mutations, you could still reduce the cancer risk hugely, for many types of cancer, by getting rid of the environmental and/or hereditary causes", he said. Thus, random replication errors alone cause cancer in only 10 percent of adenocarcinoma patients, while the other 90 percent require smoking, second hand smoke, or some other environmental exposure as well.
Meaning, cancer can take place no matter how flawless the environment is.
In a theoretical example, in which the environment greatly increased the incidence of cancer, the team showed that around 40 percent of cancer-associated mutations would still be due to DNA replication errors. That's important, because statisticians have shaken their heads when journalists interpreted the researchers' previous study to mean that a large proportion of cancers are just "bad luck".
The authors of the study published Thursday poked a hornet's nest by suggesting that many cancers are unavoidable.
In contrast, they noted, more than two-thirds of the mutations in lung cancer arise from environmental factors, mostly smoking.
"It is a combination of these three factors - so you can some degree of prevention of cancer by modifying these lifestyle or environmental factors", said Professor William Gallagher, Director Irish Cancer Society BREAST-PREDICT Centre and UCD Convway Institute. This could help explain why different tissue types do have different risks of cancer. For example, environmental factors, primarily smoking, caused 65 percent of all lung cancers in the study, the researchers found. Cells of the small intestine divide rarely, and only 0.2 percent of people develop cancer there.
To attribute so many cancer mutations to chance seems to negate public health messages, Waclaw says, and some people may find the calculation that 66 percent of cancer-associated mutations are unavoidable disturbing because they spend a lot of time trying to prevent cancer.
Dr Vogelstein says this research highlights an urgent need for new methods to detect all cancers - the ones that can't be prevented - earlier while they're still curable. "We now know as a result of this research that most of the enemies [in the war on cancer] are inside us". For example, although it may be possible to estimate how much smoking contributed to someone's lung cancer, it would be more hard to fully capture the impact of air pollution or exposure to radon, he says.
Mar 24 2017
U.S. set to approve Keystone XL pipeline on Friday
The $8 billion pipeline project would pass through multiple U.S. states: Montana, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas and Oklahoma. TransCanada has said about half of the steel for the Keystone project will come from the US , according to Politico .
Mar 24 2017
U.S. suspects NKorea in $81M Bangladesh theft
The high-level probe follows revelations more than £75m has gone missing from the Bangladesh Bank's own bank account. Security officials have expressed concern that the heist could represent a new level of strength in cyberwarfare.
Mar 22 2017
Users Can't Sign In, Play Games
An outage on Tuesday is keeping users of several Microsoft online services from logging into their accounts. Xbox Support is aware of the outage and say that they are "aware of the issue and are now looking into it".
Mar 22 2017
Ivanka Trump Gets West Wing Office, Access to Classified Info
Ivanka Trump will have her own office on the second floor of the West Wing, Politico reported on Monday. Ivanka Trump stepped down from day-to-day proceedings in her fashion brand, but still holds veto power.
Mar 21 2017
'Beauty and the Beast' Opens With $170 Million in Ticket Sales
Add it to the "Films You Forgot Had Theatrical Releases" section on Netflix and give it $4 million or so on the weekend. Disney's live-action film Beauty and the Beast has collected Rs 6.67 crore in its opening weekend at India box office.
Mar 20 2017
Chief Minister Yogi Adityanath, New Resident Of Lucknow's 5 Kalidas Marg
In his official chamber, Yogi had a meeting with Chief Secretary and Principal Secretary Law and Order Devashish Panda. The Congress' Mani Shankar Aiyar said, "It is clear that his aim is Hindutva, to make a Hindu nation".
Mar 19 2017
France presidential candidate charged with misuse of public funds
The embezzlement allegations have dented support for Mr Fillon, a one-time frontrunner now in third place in the polls. It alleged that he paid his wife hundreds of thousands of euros for work which she might not have done.
Mar 18 2017
Japan's government found liable for Fukushima disaster
A series of group lawsuits have been filed in 18 different prefectures in Japan by refugees from Fukushima. The court ordered Tepco and the government to pay between $621 and $31,000 to 62 plaintiff.
Mar 18 2017
McDonalds tweet slams Trump
McDonald's handling of the situation, in addition to initial customer reactions, probably won't affect them in the long run. His supporters are also boycotting Hawaii after a judge from the state temporarily halted Mr Trump's second travel ban.
Mar 18 2017
Tillerson: State Department spending levels 'unsustainable'
The site, Independent Journal Review , or IJR for short, does not have a well-established track record of covering foreign policy. The journalists who reported Tillerson's landing in Tokyo on Wednesday evening travelled there on commercial flights.
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